Aug 19 — 2021

# The opportunity to apply responsible AI (Part 1): Guidelines, Data Science tools, legal initiatives, and tips.

## Intro

Dramatic increases in computing power have led to a surge of Artificial Intelligence applications with immense potential in industries as diverse as health, logistics, energy, travel and sports. As corporations continue to operationalise Artificial Intelligence (AI), new applications present risks and stakeholders are increasingly concerned about the trust, transparency and fairness of algorithms. The ability to explain the behaviour of each analytical model and its decision-making pattern, while avoiding any potential biases, are now key aspects when it comes to assessing the effectiveness of AI-powered systems. For reference, bias is understood as the prejudice hidden in the dataset used to design, develop and train algorithms, which can eventually result in unfair predictions, inaccurate outcomes, discrimination and other similar consequences. Computer systems cannot validate data on their own, but are empowered to confirm decisions and here lies the beginning of the problem. Traditional scientists understand the importance of context in the validation of curated data sets. However, despite our advances in AI, the one thing we cannot program a computer to do is to understand context and we consistently fail in programming all of the variables that come into play in the situations that we aim to analyse or predict.
“A computer cannot understand context and we consistently fail in programming all of the variables that come into play in the situations that we aim to analyse or predict.”

## Historical episodes of failed algorithmia and black boxes

Since the effectiveness of AI is now measured by the creators´ ability to explain the algorithm’s output and decision-making pattern, “Black boxes” that offer little discernible insight into how outcomes are reached are not acceptable anymore. Some historical episodes that brought us all here have demonstrated how critical it is to look into the inner workings of AI.
• Sexist Headhunting: We need to go back to 2014 to understand where all this public awareness on Responsible AI began. Back then, a group of Scottish Amazon engineers developed an AI algorithm to improve headhunting, but one year later that team realised that its creation was biased in favour of men. The root cause was that their Machine Learning models were trained to scout candidates by finding terms that were fairly common in the resumés of past successful job applicants, and because of the industry´s gender imbalance, the majority of historical hires tended to be male. In this particular case, the algorithm taught itself sexism, wrongly learning that male job seekers were better suited for newly opened positions.
• Racist facial recognition: Alphabet, widely known for its search engine company Google, is one of the most powerful companies on earth, but also came into the spotlight in May 2015.

The brand was under fire after its Photo App mislabelled a user´s picture. Jacky Alcine, a black Web developer, tweeted about the offensive incorrect tag, attaching the picture of himself and a friend who had both been labelled as “gorillas” . This event quickly went viral.

• Unfair decision-making in Court: In July 2016, the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that AI-calculated risk scores can be considered by judges during sentencing. COMPAS, a system built for augmented decision-making, is based on a complex regression model that tries to predict whether or not a perpetrator is likely to reoffend. The model predicted double the number of false positives for reoffending for African American ethnicities than for Caucasian ethnicities, most likely due to the historical data used to train the model. If the model had been well adjusted at the beginning, it could have worked to reduce unfair incarceration of African Americans rather than increasing it. Also in 2016, an investigation run by ProPublica found that there were some other algorithms used in US courts that tended to incorrectly dispense harsher penalties to black defendants than white ones based on predictions provided by ML models. These models were used to score the likelihood of these same people committing future felonies. Results from these risk assessments are provided to judges in the form of predictive scores during the criminal sentencing phase to make decisions about who is set free at each stage of the justice system, when assigning bail amounts or when taking fundamental decisions about imprisonment or freedom.
• Apple´s Credit Card. Launched in August 2019, this product quickly ran into problems as users noticed that it seemed to offer lower credit to women. Even more astonishing was that no one from Apple was able to detail why the algorithm was providing this output. Investigations showed that the algorithm did not even use gender as an input, so how could it be discriminating without knowing which users were women and which were men? It is entirely possible for algorithms to discriminate on gender, even when they are programmed to be “blind” to that variable. A “gender-blinded” algorithm may be biased against women because it may be drawing data inputs that originally correlated with gender. Moreover, “forcing” blindness to a critical variable such as gender only makes it more difficult to identify and prevent biases on those variables.
• Most recently, mainly around 2020, AI-enhanced video surveillance has raised some of the same issues that we have just read about such as a lack of transparency, paired with the potential to worsen existing racial disparities. Technology enables society to monitor and “police” people in real time, making predictions about individuals based on their movements, emotions, skin colour, clothing, voice, and other parameters. However, if this technology is not tweaked to perfection, false or inaccurate analytics can lead to people being falsely identified, incorrectly perceived as a threat and therefore hassled, blacklisted, or even sent to jail. This example became particularly relevant during the turmoil caused by the Black Lives Matter riots and the largest tech firms quickly took action: IBM ended all facial recognition programs to focus on racial equity in policing and law enforcement and Amazon suspended active contracts for a year to reassess the usage and accuracy of their biometric technology to better govern the ethical use of their facial recognition systems.

All these are examples of what should never happen. Humans can certainly benefit from AI, but we need to pay attention to all the implications around the advancements of technology.

## Transparency vs effective decision-making: The appropiate trade-off

For high volume, relatively “benign” decision-making applications, such as a TV series recommendation in an Over-The-Top streaming platform, a “black box” model may be seem valid. For critical decision-making models that relate to mortgages, work requests or a trial resolution, black boxes are not an acceptable option.

After reading in the previous 5 examples where AI is ineffectively used to support decisions on who gets a job interview, who is granted parole, and even for making life-or-death decisions, it is clear that there’s a growing need to ensure that interpretability, explainability and transparency aspects are addressed thoroughly. This being said, “Failed algorithmia” does not imply that humans should not strive to automate or augment their intelligence and decision-making, but that it must be done carefully by following clever and strict development guidelines.

AI was born to augment human intelligence, but we need to ensure that it does not evolve towards automating our biases too. AI systems should be deemed trustworthy, relate to human empowerment, technical robustness, accountability, safety, privacy, governance, transparency, diversity, fairness, non-discrimination and societal and enviromental well-being.

“AI was born to augment human intelligence, but we need to ensure that it does not evolve towards automating our biases too.”

This responsibility also applies to C-level leaders and top executives. Global organisations aren’t leading by example yet and still show no willingness or need to expose their models’ reasoning or to establish boundaries for algorithmic bias . All sorts of mathematical models are still being used by tech companies that aren’t transparent enough about how they operate, probably because even those data and AI specialists who know their algorithms are at a risk of bias are still keen to achieve their end goal rather than taking it out.

## So, what can be done about all this?

There are some data science tools, best practices, and tech tips that we follow and use at Bedrock.

I will be talking about all this in the second part of this article as well as about the need for guidelines and legal boundaries in the Data Science & AI field.

Aug 19 — 2021

# The opportunity to apply responsible AI (Part 2): Guidelines, Data Science tools, legal initiatives, and tips.

## Intro

In the first part of this article we discussed the potential harm and risks of some Artificial Intelligence applications that have demonstrated immense potential across many industries. We concluded that the ability to explain each algorithm’s behaviour and its decision-making pattern is now key when it comes to assessing the effectiveness of AI-powered systems.

In this second part we will be providing some tips, tools and techniques to tackle this challenge. Likewise, we will be commenting on promising initiatives that are happening in the EU and worldwide around responsible AI. Lastly, we will comment on how responsible AI is an opportunity rather than a burden for organisations.

## Technical guidelines and best practices

As professionals that operate in this field and that can be held accountable for what we develop, we should always ask ourselves two key questions:

1. What does it take for this algorithm to work?
2. How could this algorithm fail, and for whom?

Moreover, those developing the algorithms should ensure the data used to train the model is bias-free, and not leaking any of their own biases either. Here are a couple of tips to minimise bias:

• Any datasets used must represent the ideal state and not the current one, as randomly sampled data may have biases since we live in an unfair way. Therefore, we must proactively ensure that data used represents everyone equally.
• The evaluation phase should include a thorough “testing stage” by social groups, filtering these groups by gender, age, ethnicity, income, etc. when population samples are included in the development of the model or when the outcome may affect people.

## What tools Data Scientists have

There are tools and techniques that professionals from our field use when they need to explain complex ML models.

• SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanation): Its technical definition is based on the Shapley value, which is the average marginal contribution of a feature value over all possible coalitions. In plain English: It works by considering all possible predictions by using all possible combinations of inputs and by breaking down the final prediction into the contribution of each attribute.
• IBM’s AIX360 or AI Fairness 360: An open-source library that provides one of the most complete stacks to simplify the interpretability of machine learning programs and allows the sharing of the reasoning of models on different dimensions of explanations along with standard explainability metrics. It was developed by IBM Research to examine, report, and mitigate discrimination across the full AI application lifecycle. It is likely that we will see some of the ideas behind this toolkit being incorporated into mainstream deep learning frameworks and platforms.
• What-IF-TOOL: A platform to visually probe the behaviour of trained machine learning models with minimal coding requirements.
• DEON: A relatively simple ethics checklist for responsible data science.
• Model Cards: Proposed by Google Research provides confirmation that the intent of a given model matches its original use case. Model Cards can help stakeholders to understand conditions under which the analytical model is safe and also safe to implement.

## The AI greenfield requires strict boundaries

AI represents a huge opportunity for society and corporations, but the modelling processes should be regulated to ensure that new applications and analytical mechanisms always ease and improve everyone’s life. There is not any legal framework that helps to tackle this major issue, that sets boundaries and/or that provides bespoke guidelines. Likewise, there is not any international consensus that allows consistent ruling, audit or review of what is right and wrong in AI. In fact there is not even national consensus within countries.

Specific frameworks such as The Illinois’ Biometric Information Privacy Act (BIPA) in the US are a good start. The BIPA has been a necessary pain for tech giants as it forbids the annotation of biometric data like facial recognition images, iris scans or fingerprints without explicit consent.

There are ambitious initiatives such as OdiseIA that shed some light on what to do across industries and aim to build a plan to measure the social and ethical impact of AI. But this is not nearly enough because of the immediate need of international institutions to establish global consistency. If a predictive model recommends rejecting a mortgage, can the responsible data science and engineering team detail the logical process and explain to a regulator why it was rejected? Can the leading data scientist prove that the model is reliable within a given acceptable range of fairness? Can they prove that the algorithm is not biased?

The AI development process must be somehow regulated, establishing global best-practices as well as a mandatory legal framework around this science. Regulating the modelling process can mean several things: from hiring an internal compliance team that supports data and AI specialists to outsourcing some sort of audit for every algorithm created or implemented.

AI could be regulated in the same way The European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the EU follows specific protocols to ensure the safety, efficacy and adversarial effects for drugs.

## Emerging legal initiatives: Europe leading the way

On 8th April 2019 the EU High Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence proactively set the Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI that were applicable to model development. They established that AI should always be designed to be:

1. Lawful: Respecting applicable laws and regulations.
2. Ethical: Respecting human ethical principles.
3. Robust: Both from a technical and sustainable perspective

The Algorithmic Accountability Act in the USA that dates from November 2019 is another example of a legal initiative that also aimed to set a framework for the development of algorithmic decision-making systems and has also served as a reference to other countries, public institutions and governments.

Fast forward to the present day, the European Commission proposed on 21st April 2021 new rules and actions with the ambition of turning Europe into the global hub for trustworthy AI by combining the first-ever legal framework on AI and a new Coordinated Plan with Member States. This new plan aims to guarantee the safety and fundamental rights of people and businesses, while strengthening AI uptake, investment and innovation across Europe. New rules will be applied in the same way across all European countries following a risk-based approach, and an Intelligence Board will facilitate implementation and drive the development of AI standards.

## The opportunity in regulation

Governance in AI, such as that which the EU is driving, should not be considered as an evil. If performed accurately, AI regulation will level the playing field, will create a sense of certainty, will establish and strengthen trust and will promote competition. Moreover, governance would allow us to legally frame the boundaries on acceptable risks and benefits of AI monetisation while ensuring that any project is planned for success.

“AI regulation will level the playing field, will create a sense of certainty, will establish and strengthen trust and will promote competition.”

Regulation actually opens a new market for consultancies that help other companies and organisations manage and audit algorithmic risks. Cathy O’Neil, a mathematician and the author of Weapons of Math Destruction, a book that highlights the risk of algorithmic bias in dozens of contexts, heads the Online Risk Consulting & Algorithmic Auditing (ORCAA), a company that was set up to help companies identify and correct any potential biases in the algorithms they use.

Counting on a potential international legislator or auditor would also allow those that achieve the “Audited player label” to project a positive brand image while remaining competitive. Using an analogy that relates to drug development: Modern society relies on medicines prescribed by doctors because there is an inherited trust in their qualifications, and because doctors believe in the compulsory clinical trial processes that each drug goes through before hitting the market.

## Final thoughts

Simply put, AI has no future without us humans. Systems collecting the data typically have no way to validate the data they collect and in which context the data is recorded and collected. Data has no intuition, strategic thinking or instincts. Technological advancements are shaping the evolution of our society, but each and every one of us is responsible for paying close attention to how AI, as one of these main advancements, is used for the benefit of the greater good.

If you and your organisation want to be ahead of the game, don’t wait for regulation to come to you, but take proactive steps prior to any imposed regulatory shifts:

• It must be well understood that data is everything. Scientists strive to ensure the quality of any data set used to validate a hypothesis and go to great lengths to eliminate unknown factors that could alter their experiments. Controlled environments are the essence of well-designed analytical modelling.
• Design, adapt and improve your processes to learn how to establish an internal “auditing” framework. Something like a minimal viable checklist that allows your team to work on fair AI while others are still trying to squeeze an extra 1% accuracy from a ML model. Being exposed to the risk of deploying a biased algorithm that may potentially harm your customers, scientific reputation and your P&L is not appealing.
• Design and build repositories to document all newly created governance and regulatory internal processes so that all work is accessible and can be fully disclosed to auditors or regulators when needed, increasing external trust and loyalty to your scientific work.
• Maintaining diverse teams, both in terms of backgrounds, demographics and in terms of skills is important for avoiding unwanted bias. While in the STEM world women and people of colour remain under-represented, these may be the first people to notice these issues if they are part of the core modelling and development team.
• Be a promoter and activist for change in the field. Ensure that your communications team and technical leaders take part in AI ethics associations or debates of the like. This will allow your organisation to be rightly considered a force for change.

All these are AI strategic mechanisms that we use at Bedrock and that allow the legal and fair utilisation of data. The greatest risk for you and your business not only lies in ignoring the potential of AI, but also in not knowing how to navigate AI with fairness, transparency, interpretability and explainability.

Responsible AI in the form of internal control, governance and regulation should not be perceived as a technical process gateway or as a burden on your board of directors, but as a potential competitive advantage, representing a value-added investment that still is unknown for many. An organisation that successfully acts on its commitment to ethical AI is poised to become a thought leader in this field.

Jul 23 — 2021

## Intro

Introduction

An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a statistical learning algorithm that is framed in the context of supervised learning and Artificial Intelligence. It is composed of a group of highly connected nodes called neurons that connect an input layer (input), and an output layer (output). In addition, there may be several hidden layers between the previous two, a situation known as deep learning.

Algorithms like ANNs are everywhere in modern life, helping to optimise lots of different processes and make good business decisions. If you want to read a more detailed introduction to Neural Network algorithms, check out our previous article, but if you’re feeling brave enough to get your hands dirty with mathematical details about ways to optimise them, you’re in the right place!

When we train an artificial neural network, what we are basically doing is solving an optimisation problem. A well optimised machine learning algorithm is a powerful tool, it can achieve better accuracy while also saving time and resources. But, if we neglect the optimisation process, we can cause very negative consequences. For instance, the algorithm might seem perfect during the tests and fail resoundingly in the real world, or we could have incorrect underlying assumptions about our data and amplify them when we implement the model. For this reason, it is extremely important to spend time and effort optimising a machine learning algorithm and, especially, a neural network.

The objective function that we want to optimise, – in particular, minimise-, in this case is the cost function or loss function J, which depends on the weights \omega of the network. The value of this function is the one that informs us of our network’s performance, that is, how well it solves the regression problem or classification that we are dealing with. Since a good model will make as few errors as possible, we want the cost function to reach its minimum possible value.

If you have ever read about neural networks, you will be familiar with the classic minimisation algorithm: the gradient descent. In essence, gradient descent is a way to minimise an objective function – J(\omega) in our case – by updating its parameters in the opposite direction of the gradient of the objective function with respect to these parameters.

Unlike other simpler optimisation problems, the J function can depend on millions of parameters and their minimisation is not trivial. During the optimisation process for our neural network, it is common to encounter some difficulties like overfitting or underfitting, choosing the right moment to stop the training process, getting stuck in local minima or saddle points or having a pathological curvature situation. In this article we will explore some techniques to solve these two last problems.

Remember that gradient descent updates the weights \omega of the network in a step t + 1 th as follows

mechanisms,concluding what happened and what is likely to happen next.

In order to avoid these problems, we can input some variations in this formula. For instance, we could alter the learning rate \alpha, modify the component relative to the gradient or even modify both terms. There are many different variations that modify the previous equation, trying to adapt it to the specific problem in which they are applied; this is the reason why these are called adaptive methods.

Let’s take a closer look at some of the most commonly used techniques:

The learning rate \alpha is the network´s hyperparameter that controls how much the model must change, based on the cost function value, each time the weights are updated; it dictates how quickly the model adapts to the problem. As we mentioned earlier, choosing this value is not trivial. If \alpha is too small, the training stage takes longer and the process may not even converge, while if it is too large, the algorithm will oscillate and may diverge.

Although the common approach taking \alpha = 0.01 provides good results, it has been shown that the training process improves when \alpha stops being constant and starts depending on the iteration “t”. Below are three options that rephrase \alpha’s expression:

Exponential decay

Inverse decay

Potential decay

The constant parameter “k” controls how \alpha_t decreases and it is usually set by trial and error. In order to choose the initial value of \alpha, \alpha_0, there are also known techniques, but they are beyond the scope of this article.

Another simpler approach that is often used to adapt \alpha consists in reducing it by a constant factor every certain number of epochs – training cycles through the full training dataset -. For example, dividing it by two every ten epochs. Lastly, the option proposed in [1] is shown below,

where \alpha is kept constant during the first \tau iterations and then decreases with each iteration t.
• Momentum
We have seen that when we have a pathological curvature situation, the descent of the gradient has problems in the ravines [Image 2],  , in the parts of the area where the curvature of the cost function is much greater along one dimension than the others. In this scenario, the gradient descent oscillates between the ridges of the ravine and progresses more slowly towards the optimum. To avoid this, we could use optimisation methods such as Newton’s known method, but this may significantly raise the computational power requirements since it would have to evaluate the Hessian matrix of the cost function for thousands of parameters. The momentum technique was developed to dampen these oscillations and accelerate convergence of the training. Instead of only considering the value of the gradient at each step, this technique accumulates information about the gradient in previous steps to determine the direction in which to advance. The algorithm is set as follows:

where \beta \in [0,1] and m_0 is equal to zero.

If we set \beta = 0 in the previous equation, we see that we recover the plain gradient descent algorithm!

As we perform more iterations, the information of gradients from older stages has a lower associated weight; we are making an exponential moving average of the value of the weights! This technique is more efficient than the simple moving average since it quickly adapts the value of the prediction of fluctuations in recent data.

• RMSProp

The Root Mean Square Propagation technique, better known as RMSProp, also deals with accelerating convergence to a minimum, but in a different way from Momentum. In this case we do not adapt the gradient term explicitly:

We have now introduced “v_t” as the exponential moving average of the square of gradients. As an initial value it’s common to take v = 0 and the constant parameters equal to \beta = 0.9 and \epsilon = 10^{-7}.

Let’s imagine that we are stuck at a local minimum and the values of the gradient are close to zero. In order to get out of this “minimum zone” we would need to accelerate the oscillations by increasing \alpha. Reciprocally, if the value of the gradient is large, this means that we are at a point with a lot of curvature, so in order to not exceed the minimum, we then want to decrease the size of the step. By dividing \alpha by that factor we are able to incorporate information about the gradient in previous steps and increase \alpha when the magnitude of the gradients is small.

The AdaptativeMomentOptimization algorithm, better known as ADAM, combines the ideas of the two previous optimisers above.

\beta_1 corresponds to the parameter of the Momentum and \beta_2 to the RMSProp.

We are adding two additional hyperparameters to optimise in addition to \alpha, so some might find this formulation counterproductive, but it is a price to be paid if we aim to accelerate the training process. Generally, the values taken by default are \beta_1 = 0.9, \beta_2 = 0.99 and \epsilon = 10^{-7}.

It has been empirically shown that this optimiser can converge faster to the minimum than other famous techniques like the Stochastic Gradient Descent.

Lastly, it is worth noting that it is common to make a bias correction in ADAM’s equation: This is because at the first stages ​​we would not have much available data from previous ones, and then the formula would be reformulated with

\beta_1 corresponds to the parameter of the Momentum and \beta_2 to the RMSProp.

We are adding two additional hyperparameters to optimise in addition to \alpha, so some might find this formulation counterproductive, but it is a price to be paid if we aim to accelerate the training process. Generally, the values taken by default are \beta_1 = 0.9, \beta_2 = 0.99 and \epsilon = 10^{-7}.

It has been empirically shown that this optimiser can converge faster to the minimum than other famous techniques like the Stochastic Gradient Descent.

Lastly, it is worth noting that it is common to make a bias correction in ADAM’s equation: This is because at the first stages ​​we would not have much available data from previous ones, and then the formula would be reformulated with

## Conclusions

In summary, the goal of this article is to introduce some of the problems that may arise when we wish to optimise a neural network and the most well-known adaptive techniques to tackle them. We’ve seen that the combination of a dynamic alpha with an adaptive optimiser can help the network learn much faster and perform better. We should remember, however, that Data Science is a field in constant evolution and while you were reading this article, a new paper may have been published trying to prove how a new optimiser can perform a thousand times better than all the ones mentioned here!

In future articles we will look at how to tackle the dreaded problem of an overfitting model and the vanishing gradient. Until then, if you need to optimise a neural network, don’t settle for the default configuration, use these examples to try to adapt it to your specific real problem or business application 🙂

REFERENCIAS:

[1] Bengio, Y. 2012. Practical Recommendations for Gradient-Based Training of Deep Architectures. arXiv:1206.5533v2.

[2] Intro to optimization in deep learning: Momentum, RMSProp and Adam – Ayoosh Kathuria https://blog.paperspace.com/intro-to-optimization-momentum-rmsprop-adam/

[3] Kingma, Diederik and Jimmy Ba. 2014. Adam: A method for stochastic optimization. arXiv

preprint arXiv:1412.6980.

[4] Zhen Xu, Andrew M. Dai, Jonas Kemp, Luke Metz. 2019. Learning an Adaptive Learning Rate Schedule. arXiv:1909.09712v1.

Apr 27 — 2021

# Quantum Physics II — Data collection, modelling, and analysis at CMS CERN

## CMS ALGORITHMS FOR ANALYTICS AND DARK MATTER DETECTION

In this second part of the previous introductory article, we’ll tackle the more in-depth description of data collection, object modelling, and data analysis at CMS. The general workflow behind these kinds of experiments is complex, but I’ll try to give a brief description of each part so you can get a general idea of the whole process.

Analysis of a collision and important concepts

We‘ve been talking about particles and detectors, but an important question remains unanswered: what exactly is colliding? The answer is protons, or more exactly, bunches of protons. Accelerated through the LHC by multiple solenoid setups, these bunches come across one another in the detectors, and a collision happens. This proton beam has no perpendicular component, meaning it only moves in a circular manner through the LHC, due to the solenoids’ magnetic field; this is done on purpose since studying the collision in the perpendicular plane means the conservation of energy applies and all momentum must be null, meaning if there’s an imbalance an invisible particle has been produced. A cross-section of the detector can be seen below, with its components (here). Some examples of these particles are neutrinos, but also possible dark matter or other theoretical particles. So now, what’s the next step?

At the interaction vertex, these particles collide and decay products flow through the different parts of the detector, constructed so that measures are taken with high precision and allow for the (mostly) unequivocal identification of particles. However, not everything is as straightforward as it seems, and several events need to be taken into account; I’ll briefly explain them below.

One of the most important magnitudes in colliders is luminosity, which is interpreted as the number of collisions per unit of time and surface. As of 2018, when Run 2 ended, the luminosity value meant that every 25 ns a collision occurred and that almost 150 femtobarns of cumulative data (each femtobarn equals 100 billion collisions!) were analysed.

This raises a significant problem: it’s obvious that more collisions are needed to assess the veracity of models, but if there are too many, the detector won’t be able to keep up with them; this is further complicated since the interactions are among proton bunches. The concept is known as pile-up, and it refers to the average number of collisions that occur each time the detector tries to check the decay products of an interaction. With current data, this value is around 20 collisions, but CERN is allocating its resources to an upgrade called High-Luminosity LHC, which will improve on the integrated luminosity and, in turn, increase the pile-up to almost 200; this is unfeasible with current hardware and software, meaning this project will need serious backing and development; however, the benefits far outweigh the difficulties.

Okay, and now that we know a lot of collisions occur at almost the same time, how is CMS able to discern the decay products of the interaction it wants? Not only that, but the amount of data produced is orders of magnitude over what current hardware and software can process and store. This is the core process of CERN data gathering, and it’s taken care of by several software and hardware solutions commonly referred to as trigger. It’s a really interesting and core part of the data gathering process, but it’s too extensive and technical to discuss here, so I’ll explain the methodology behind it briefly and leave some documentation here, here, and here in case you’re interested. I’ll also leave a diagram below that summarises this information.

The first phase filters down a lot of data using detector hardware to register adequate data in a really short time (almost a millionth of a second!), taking into account information from the muon chambers and calorimeters specifically, and is known as the level-1 trigger or L1. This phase can cut down the total recorded data from 40 MHz up to just 100 kHz, offering the first cut towards useful data. Next, a second set of commercial processors and parallel machines takes that data and further refines it based on precision parameters, operating offline; this is called the high-level trigger or HLT. Then, it creates a backup of the data and sends it to the associated research institutions for analysis. Even at this last stage, recorded data is still around the 1 GB/s mark, showing just how much the trigger and further resources are needed.

Collision object identification

Now that collision data has been recorded, the next step is to identify the particles based on their traces through the detector. This will allow scientists to reconstruct the particles that have appeared as a result of the collision, using the data collected at the different parts of the detector. These reconstructions of particles at CMS employ an algorithm called Particle Flow; the algorithm itself is really complex and takes into account many measurements and variables to discriminate between particles and correctly tag them, so please check the documentation provided if you’re interested.

With this algorithm, photons and leptons (especially muons) are easily tagged with the algorithm, but more complex objects such as hadrons are harder to tag. The difficulty associated with this jet tagging is related to the nature of the Strong force and a concept called sea quarks that we’ll discuss briefly next.

In a collision between two protons, or more accurately between proton quarks, the immediate thought is that only the constituent quarks can interact, so only up and down quarks would interact. However, a measure of the mass of the proton and these quarks shows that most of the mass doesn’t come from its constituents but from internal bounding energy. This means that this excess energy, if the collider energy is enough, can produce other quarks such as quarks bottom and top, both several times the mass of quarks u and d, and these quarks may be the ones that interact at the collision point; an example of a collision may be seen in the image below.

An important concept of jet tagging is that, usually, the decay-inducing quark is unknown since the hadronisation process is so chaotic, but a certain type of jet can be identified. Jets coming from the decay of a b quark have a characteristic second vertex, which has enough travel distance from the first as to be measured (the reason is that b quarks have a longer lifetime than other quarks); for this reason, it’s perceived as a separate important event and receives the name b-tagging. This event has a specific algorithm created to detect it called CVS.

Data simulation and model checking

Once meaningful data has been retrieved and objects are recreated, it’s time to check this data against previously known results for the SM. The way CERN takes care of this comparison is by employing data simulations with MonteCarlo samples. These simulations include all data related to processes’ cross-sections (defined as the probability of decay related to all possible decays), decays, and detector components (to the point of knowing the location of each pixel!) so that the uncertainty of these controllable events is minimised and meaningful conclusions can be made; if we want to measure a cross-section for dark matter, which may be very low, these uncertainties could be either the defining point of discovery or just statistical variations.

The algorithms simulate particles moving through the detector, interacting with each other, showing decay channels to high perturbation theory orders, and in general being very precise with the locations and efficiency of each and every part of the detector. The main algorithms used in this simulation are Powheg and aMC@NLO, both of them built on Pythia. Afterwards, the software Geant4 simulates the particle interactions with the CMS detector. These algorithms provide SM-accurate processes for all the different backgrounds needed in the analysis, which we will explain next.

Now that we have collected real collision data and have data simulations, the next step is to define the process we want to study, like a certain decay of particles producing dark matter. To check if dark matter production is possible in this model, the investigator must include in its data all the possible backgrounds; in this context, a background is a decay that leaves the same traces in the detector as the main process we want to study.

It’s mandatory at this state to include blinding to the data, meaning that we shouldn’t include real data until the end of the study; this prevents the investigator from being biased.

Finally, the goal of these discovery projects can be summarised in one sentence: after including the simulation data, the investigator selects measures like the number of jets, tagged b quarks, missing transverse energy, etc. or defines new ones that they think could potentially be used to discriminate the signal (the studied process) against the backgrounds; this means, for example, selecting variable intervals where the dark matter processes are abundant while background processes are not.

Afterwards, the investigator includes the real data and checks if the results are in agreement with the SM. The way this is done is by a hypothesis test of:

• H0: SM physics
• H1: BSM physics

This includes doing some advanced statistical analysis, like creating a modified likelihood ratio to obtain confidence intervals (CI) of the cross-sections of these processes. This is very technical so I’ll leave some documentation here that hints at the entire process, but the basic idea behind it is that we can compare the obtained results with what is expected and:

If they’re similar, then the investigator has fine-tuned the limits of the cross-section of the model for future references, and further studies of that model are made easier.
If they aren’t similar, then they might have discovered something new! In particle physics, this case is presented when differences between theoretical and experimental cross-sections exceed 2𝝈 uncertainty, but it’s not classified as a discovery until the 5𝝈 threshold; 𝝈 in this context refers to the confidence interval associated, and this article gives a really good explanation of this concept. This shows that, in particle physics, we are really certain of the results obtained.

As an example, the most recent case of this 5𝝈 threshold was the discovery of the Higgs boson back in 2012.

Conclusion

The goal of this article is to show the reader the workflow of a CMS investigator researching a certain process, either a search for new particles like dark matter or already studied processes. From the detector components to the data collection, simulation and analysis, I hope you have acquired a general understanding of these concepts, albeit very superficial. In that regard, the literature regarding this subject is written by CERN physicists, so assumptions about all these steps are regularly made, and the average reader will be lost in the concepts and common slang employed.

I hope this article has helped you get a better understanding of this workflow, and that it’ll maybe spark some interest in particle physics, helping you understand further research done and news stories about it.

Apr 27 — 2021

# Quantum Physics I — the CERN data workflow in new Physics discoveries.

## HOW DATA ANALYSIS AT CERN CAN HELP DETECT DARK MATTER

A comprehensive guide of the CERN workflow in new Physics discoveries.

Are you interested in learning more about particle physics? You might have heard terms like neutrinos, quarks, or dark matter mentioned before and want to know more about them. However, the literature and articles involved mainly use terms and concepts that the reader is supposed to already know, which makes them inaccessible to anyone not in this field.

In this article, I’ll provide an easy-to-understand explanation about everything you’d need to know to understand the main points of these articles: the main results, how they’ve been obtained, and the methodology behind their collection. It will be divided into two parts:

• The first one will focus on the basic concepts regarding this subject: a basic Standard Model (SM) overview and a description of dark matter and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector.
• The second one will focus on the details of data collection and analysis at CERN; this one is where the Data Science component will be.

My experience with this subject comes from my undergraduate project in Physics dedicated to a dark matter model verification with LHC Run 2 data, where my love for experimental particle physics was consolidated. I hope this article will help you understand the basics of these studies at CERN and get you started in further publications on this topic.

## Standard Model Basics

We’ll start with a short description of the Standard Model (SM), the theory that describes the structure of matter and its interactions. It’s worth noting that the terminology model comes from the 1970s, when this theory didn’t have enough experimental evidence to support it as such, while nowadays it does.

The SM postulates the existence of two kinds of particles: fermions, which compose all visible matter, and baryons, that mediate the fundamental interactions (ElectroMagnetism, Strong and Weak forces, and Gravity; integrating this last one is still one of the biggest mysteries of modern physics). According to this theory, every interaction between two particles is mediated via the exchange of a boson. Below you can see a simple diagram of these particles and their classifications. The main difference between these two types of particles is their spin: fermions have half-integer spins, while bosons have integer spins, and this is the main reason the physics around these particles are so different.

Fermions are further divided into two families of 6 particles each: leptons (electron, muon, tau, and their respective neutrinos; these are particles with little mass and no electric charge that appear in the decay of their associated lepton) and quarks; the main difference between these is that quarks are affected by the Strong force, while leptons aren’t, and the reason for this comes from the charges of these particles. Another kind of particle not shown in the previous graphic is the antiparticle, which is the same particle, but with opposite electric charge; you may know this by its much cooler name of antimatter. Furthermore, quarks cannot be found as independent particles and must form bigger particles called hadrons; the most famous ones being the proton and neutron, composed of quark configurations uud and udd respectively; this phenomenon of hadronization of quarks is called confinement and is a really interesting topic for those interested. Since the fundamental interactions are mediated by bosons, these must couple with the corresponding fermions, but that is only possible if they share the same type of charge. To further explain this, let’s examine each of these forces:
• ElectroMagnetism: this force is mediated by the photon (γ) between particles that share electric charge; this includes all quarks, all leptons except neutrinos, and both bosons W⁺ and W⁻.
• Weak force: this is the main force behind the decay of some particles into others, like radioactivity, and is mediated by the bosons W⁺, W⁻, and the boson Z⁰ (the superscript indicates their electric charge). The charge needed for this interaction is the weak charge, and all fermions have it.
• Strong force: this is the force that binds the atomic nucleus together, and is mediated by the gluon (g), which has no electric or weak charges. However, a big difference with the previous interactions is that the gluon possesses colour (this is the name given to the strong charge). Its name comes from the fact that this interaction is several times stronger than electromagnetism, thus showing how the nucleus can exist even when it’s made out of protons that should be repelling one another. Only quarks have colour, and as such are the only particles affected by the strong force.
The last piece of the puzzle in the SM is the Higgs boson, which couples to every particle (including itself!) except neutrinos, and is responsible for the mass of the particle. This may seem like a lot of information at once, but don’t worry, the goal of this overview of the SM is to give some context and familiarise you with the forces and particles that rule our universe, you can always reread it later.

## What is Dark Matter?

We’ve talked about dark matter in this article before, but we haven’t really given any sort of description of it; we’ll tackle this briefly in this section, discussing the evidence that supports its existence as well.

Several sources, even going back as far as the 1930s, show that astronomical calculations involving galaxy masses and rotational speeds don’t match with the expected results from the observable masses they have. One example of this is the Cosmic Microwave Background or CMB, where we learned that baryonic matter (meaning stars, planets, humans, etc.) only makes up ~5% of the total universe mass; here is some documentation on CMB, gravitational lensing and the Hubble Law that expands on this matter.

Is there a possibility that this is actually some sort of known particle? Some possible candidates could be :
• Antimatter: this is impossible since the matter-antimatter annihilation process shows very characteristic 𝜸-rays, and these are not seen.
• Black holes: again, it can’t be since black holes curve light around them, and dark matter doesn’t affect photons.
So, now we know most of the universe is made out of some sort of matter/energy that doesn’t interact electromagnetically, which makes it pretty much invisible to most detectors on Earth, but does interact gravitationally; if it didn’t, then we wouldn’t even know it existed. Since this is the case, the naming convention for this new type of matter is dark matter, the dark alluding to the fact that it doesn’t interact normally with baryonic matter. As you can guess, knowing that around 90% of the universe is made out of something we don’t know makes this one of the main research topics of modern-day physics, including searches in particle accelerators like LHC.

## The CMS detector of the LHC

The LHC is the biggest, most powerful particle collider in the world, and provides the best opportunity to discover new particles, like dark matter. In this article, we’ll focus on CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid), but the data collection and general workflow apply to the other three main detectors: ATLAS, ALICE, and LHCb. Its name comes from the muon chambers that, combined with the solenoid, offer the best muon detection resolution available today. There are several components in CMS that can detect all traces of different particles leaving the collision point; if you want a more detailed explanation take a look at this article. There are lots of components, as you can see, but the important thing you have to remember is that their purpose is to analyse the different tracks that different particles leave: electric charge, movement traces, energy, etc. With all of these concepts introduced, we’re ready to dive deeper into the specifics of data collection at CERN in our second part!

Jan 8 — 2021

# Trends in Data Science & AI that will shape corporate strategy and business plans

## Intro

In response to the most atypical year that many of us may have probably lived, leading companies have wisely reconsidered where to place their money. Inevitably, the pandemic has noticeably sped up the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and has also motivated business leaders to accelerate innovation in the pursuit of new routes to generate revenue and with the aim of outrunning the competition.

Companies and clients entering a digital transformation and wanting to become data-driven can be overwhelmed by the sheer amount of technological solutions, tools and providers. Keeping up to date with the trends in the discipline may help. So without further ado, let’s take a look at what to watch for in the year ahead with regard to practices, talent, culture, methodologies, and ethics involving business strategy and organisational development.

## From Data to AI literacy

The structural foundations of a company are its people, so ensuring that your workforce is ready to embrace change, because they understand what change means, is still the first step to take in the AI journey. Data literacy was a trend in late 2019 and throughout 2020, now together with AI literacy both will continue to be a trend for the next two years.

If you think about it, Computer literacy is now a commodity that allows us to engage with society, i.e. finding a job, ordering food, etc, in ways previously unimaginable. Similarly, AI literacy is becoming increasingly important as AI systems become more integrated into our daily lives and even into our personal devices. Learning how to interact with AI-based systems that are fuelled with data provides more options in the consumption and use of technology and will pave the way for successful AI adoption in the corporate world.

In order to have AI literacy we must first have data literacy. To understand what an AI algorithm does, you must firstly know which data you have at hand, understand its meaning and where it’s sourced and how it is produced, and only then can you know how to extract its value using AI. Therefore, investments in educational workshops, seminars and similar exercises for preparing all business units to understand how Data Science and AI will impact their lives and work is instrumental, especially because of the huge amount of preconceived notions that are floating about out there.

## From abstract to actionable. CDO´s and human-centered methodologies.

AI has been on everyone’s minds as the next major step for humanity, but companies that have previously struggled to find a measurable return on their investment will now be taking a more pragmatic approach , making special adjustments right from the start. These adjustments may be structuring and reshaping the whole organisation so that AI is welcomed and supported appropriately and then correctly embedded across all business units.  One of the advantages of practical AI is that it can achieve ROI in real time, so this could be the year many organisations see their AI efforts begin to really pay off.

So far, statistics have shown that the vast majority of data projects never get completed or just fail to deliver, so the use of human-centered and Design Thinking approaches are relevant when trying to put strategy and ideas into action and to really know where to start and create impact.

Data scientists and engineers that have been working in silos will now be placed transversely across the whole organisation. We will see an empowerment of the Chief Data Officer role and its vertical to support initiatives that affect all organisational layers and this will ensure that any Machine Learning or Robotic Process Automation projects are aligned with the overall business strategy, creating a quick quantitative and qualitative improvement of the existing  operations. In turn, data professionals will need to quickly adapt by developing their soft skills, such as communication and business acumen, otherwise there is a good chance the clash between data professionals and business executives will continue, ultimately resulting in AI investments not paying off.

## Growing lack of specialised talent

It is now difficult for a company to attract talent in this field, the demand for data professionals and AI specialists vastly exceeds the academic supply and the majority of companies currently lack the technical talent required to build scalable AI solutions. As a result salaries are going up which in turn leads to the majority of companies not being able to afford to build an internal data science team.

On the other hand, online learning portals have been providing courses and certifications that allow professionals to get up to speed, but those courses alone don’t teach everything that you need for the job; they are only a complement to other forms of training and hands-on projects. Therefore, senior specialists will still be a scarce resource and the current situation will not improve, but get worse.

One of the viable solutions to overcome this hurdle may be to provide access to self-service platforms i.e. automated machine learning tools as a way to optimise all processes that currently require highly specialised roles. This takes us to the next trend.

## Self-service Data Science and AI

Taking into account the rising demand for data professionals, organisations who are unable to hire are facing the risk of being left behind.  As a consequence, a growing number of companies are turning to no-code or AutoML platforms that would help to assist throughout the complete data science workflow, from the raw dataset preparation to the deployment of the machine learning model. The underlying objective of these “self-service business models” is to harness the commercial opportunity that the growing lack of talent scenario presents.

With the rise of no-code or low-code AI platforms, we could start to wonder: Will the job of a data scientist, data engineer or data analyst disappear or will it just evolve? In my view, although a growing number of tools rightfully promise to make the field of data science more accessible, the average Joe will not be able to make the most out of these tools and projects will be very technically limited. There are solutions providing users with attractive user interfaces and a lot of prebuilt components that can ease Machine Learning developments, but I would dare to say that we are still 4 to 5 years away from a massive democratisation of the Data Science practice ( BI took more than 15 years as a reference) I am, however,  pretty convinced that in 2021 we will see many more self-service solutions both offered and implemented.

## Automated Data Preprocessing

Inherently related to the previous trend, many Data Scientists have historically agreed that one of the most tedious and complex steps is preparing data sets to be analysed or used in order to develop, train and validate models.

Feature engineering for a Machine Learning algorithm can be more entertaining, Dimensionality Reduction in the form of Principal Component Analysis can be challenging but transforming and cleansing data sets is overwhelming and is certainly time consuming. New Python libraries and packages are emerging where the preprocessing step is automated, saving up to 80% of the time that is currently spent on early project stages. The trade-off, or even drawback, may be that data scientists would be unaware of how the resulting data sets’ features were transformed and some specific pieces of knowledge could be lost along the way.

Nevertheless, even if the preprocessing of data is automated, some data engineering tasks will still be performed manually such as moving data from different silos to unified data warehouses. This task may be the most time consuming part of the process; and it will be very hard to automate because it is case-specific.

## IT ( CIOs) vouching hard for AI

In 2021 we would expect organisations to start to see the benefits of executing their AI and ML models at a global scale, not only getting them into production for some “local” or specific use cases, but also pushing them horizontally. IT will not and cannot continue to be a “bureaucracy and technical requirements gateway” for AI projects and in 2021 IT will have to keep evolving to be an innovation hub and a “visionary instrument” for businesses. CIOs around the globe will push for AI to be embedded across the whole organisation and the spin-off of the CDO office from the traditional CIO vertical will now speak volumes about a companies´ digital maturity and about the progress of their digital transformation journey.

## Explainable and Ethical Data Science and AI

The more data science and analytics are central to the business, the more data we retrieve and merge, the higher the risk of violating customer privacy. Back in 2018 the big shift was GDPR, followed by browsers taking a stand on data privacy and now Google is planning to deprecate third-party cookies by 2022. In 2021 the ethics and operational standards behind analytical and predictive models will come into focus so that any AI mechanisms are clear from biases.

On one hand, algorithm fairness and on the other, the transparency and quality of the data sets that are used to train and validate these algorithms are two of the issues in the spotlight while companies will not be able to afford “black boxes” anymore. Leaders will be proactively managing data privacy, security and ethical use of data and analytics. It’s not only the right thing to do and an increasing legal requirement, but an essential practice to gain trust and credibility both when used inhouse to make decisions, and when used to outsmart competitors.

## Augmented Intelligence going mainstream

The term data-driven has been in the mouths of many, but in reality only a small percentage have put it into practice. The maturity of the data technology and the expertise of data professionals will now enable the decision making process, at any level in the company, to be almost fully automated and data-driven. Note the word “almost”, as output from models can complement human thinking, but not completely overrule it as analytics are not perfect either i.e. variables could be missing or data may be biased from the source.

Augmented Intelligence, also known as Machine Augmented Intelligence, Intelligence Amplification and Cognitive Augmentation, has referred, since 1950, to the effective use of IT mechanisms for augmenting human intelligence. Corporations will now be building up their Augmented Intelligence capabilities where human thinking, emotions and subjectivity are all combined and strengthened with AI´s ability to process huge amounts of data, allowing these Corporations to make informed decisions and to plan and forecast accurately.

Again, this does not mean that the AI algorithm will dictate and tell C-level executives how to run their business, but will certainly provide them with the best guidance available by providing possible outputs with the data that is fed to it.

## Affordable modelling of unstructured datasets

Natural Language Processing, Computer Vision and other forms of unstructured data processing are being improved day by day. In addition to the effort of hundreds and maybe thousands of experts  in refining these AI models,  the increase in remote working will drive the greater adoption of technologies that embed NLP, Automated Speech Recognition (ASR) and other Capabilities of the like. Computing platforms have made it possible with tools like Google Natural Language API for every company to be able to use a Deep Learning NLP without needing to train the model locally. This affordable modelling could also coin the name of AI as a Service soon. The advancements in this field will allow small and medium businesses to process data in unstructured formats because of the accessibility to validated algorithms paired with affordable cloud processing power.

## Data Storytelling and Artistic Data Viz go mainstream hand-in-hand

Any form of advanced analytics, whether it is descriptive, predictive or prescriptive does not make a lasting impact and cannot reach its full potential if insights are not communicated properly. Representing data in appealing visual ways while surrounding the numerical findings with the proper narrative and storytelling elements is now the recipe for success in the data science realm. The algorithm selection and the data set where the model was trained is undoubtedly critical, but presenting the findings and conclusions of “why something happened”, “how it could have happened” and “what could we have done about it” have never been as important as today, due to the complexity of the analytics beneath the surface.

## Conclusions

Companies and organisations rely on data to drive their innovation agenda. However, business leaders still face significant challenges to make the most out of their investment in an immature data-driven culture.  Data as an asset, Data Science as a tool and Artificial Intelligence as a discipline will encompass the next revolution for humans and we are lucky to be present.

Recapping, we should expect 10 main trends in Data Science, Data Analytics and the Artificial Intelligence space in 2021:

1. Data Science and AI literacy will continue to be a trend because humans remain at the centre.
2. Artificial Intelligence moves from abstract to actionable and the CDO role will gain importance.
3. The lack of specialised talent will not cease to grow.
4. Self-service solutions. Many autoML solutions will thrive during the next few years, empowering non-technical users to be rookie data scientists. The self-service option will contribute to widespread adoption, but AI and Data Science consultants will still be critical to drive these initiatives both on a strategic and hands-on level.
5. Automated Preprocessing of data could soon be feasible, allowing Data Scientists and Data engineers to focus on what really adds value to the business.
6. IT is pushing for AI harder than ever before.
7. Explainable, transparent and ethical data management will be on top of all agendas. The value derived from a predictive analytics project will not justify the means to an end.
8. Augmented Intelligence will allow companies to outrun competition.
9. Affordable modelling of unstructured datasets will result in a massive adoption of cutting-edge AI solutions.
10. Data Storytelling and Dataviz will not be the icing on the cake, but the key ingredient in the data science recipe

Dec 11 — 2020

# Investing in Artificial Intelligence

## Intro

While overall adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) remains low among businesses, every senior executive that I discuss the topic with claims that AI isn’t hype, although they confirm that they feel uncertain about where these disciplines may provide the largest rewards. One premise is obvious to many: To-be-launched AI initiatives must generate business value, revenue, and/or cost reductions, at least at the function level, so that CFOs and other executive committees members are on board. A recent survey by McKinsey claims that a small cluster of respondents from various vertical industries already attribute 20 % (or more) in their organisations’ P&L sheet to AI. The topic is undoubtedly worth a thorough evaluation.

Aiming to speak knowledgeably to provide informed recommendations to the reader, I write from experience, also striving to explore scientific breakthroughs and validated use cases that can be shared. I hope this article may serve as a starting point for any business leader that needs to take a leap forward to sustain competitiveness, or that aims to enhance the quality and impact of their work.

In this article I attempt to advise the reader on different ways to make the first step into the discipline, commenting on the organisational areas where AI can have the biggest impact short-term. Before you read on you should not ignore a crucial point: AI’s end goal is to serve and empower humans to do more, to be better, smarter and happier. Corporations operating more efficiently and generating added value in the market can only be a consequence if this is well understood. I highly recommend a proper understanding of terms (Data Science and AI) as a starting point for digesting this article.

Recommendations

For some time now, CDOs and CIOs have started to use different Machine Learning, and other AI capabilities, without paying attention to the highest possible return on investments. Our work consistently shows that the organisational units that most commonly reap larger rewards when AI mechanisms are implemented tend to be the areas where AI can have the most significant impact. Sounds logical but, what does it mean? Well, AI can have the biggest short-term impact where more money is being spent. So, the first piece of advice here is to follow the money. There are studies from McKinsey claiming that both supply chain management (manufacturing) and sales generation (advertising and marketing on b2c strategies) are the two functional units where AI has traditionally proved to have the biggest impact. Both of these business areas need heavy capital expenditure so it seems reasonable that both areas quickly reap big profits.

AI can have the biggest short-term impact where more money is being spent.
So, the first piece of advice here is to follow the money.

The second way leaders can make up their mind about where to apply AI is to simply look at the functions where traditional analytics are already operating usefully and where they may have room to evolve. Simply because AI, through Neural Networks, for instance, may strengthen use cases, by providing additional insight and accuracy, better than established analytical techniques. If you lack the computational power and/or the knowledge on how to apply state-of-the-art machine learning or deep learning algorithms you only need to reach out to data scientists. It may not be valid in some cases, i.e if the additional accuracy is not worth the investment or when a bullet-proof scientific equation already works well and does not require any Machine Learning algorithm. Either way, my second piece of advice: each traditional analytical method currently being used is worth a thorough evaluation since an additional implementation could make a qualitative and quantitative difference.

A third option, looking into potential Robotic Process Automation. You can think of RPA as a software robot that mimics human actions that can handle high-volume, repetitive tasks at scale. It is an evolution of the traditional Robotic Desktop Automation (RDA) that has helped tremendously in the past by simplifying, automating and integrating technologies and processes on employees’ desktops.

The main difference between RDA and RPA is its scope. RDA is implemented in each user device, only interacting with applications and software of that specific user. RPA encompasses multiple users, departments and applications. If you look at the previous graph, you will also be able to see that RPA is associated with doing, whereas AI is concerned with the simulation of human intelligence by machines. RPA is suitable for automating grunt, repetitive, rule-based tasks where humans only spend time actioning them, but can’t improve much over time. For this third option, based on RPA being highly process-driven, I recommend conducting an initial process discovery workshop that may serve as a prerequisite to mapping out the existing “as is” workflows in order to identify gaps and inefficiencies.

Many of our clients believe RPA is a smart safe bet as a first step on the AI stairway and they have cited reasons such as wanting to achieve quick-wins and capturing those low hanging fruits. Our time-to-market for RPA projects at Bedrock is usually a matter of weeks with reasonable costs and challenges, but guaranteeing a measurable return on investment i.e. We have led projects of the kind where human labour went down almost 89%. This is obviously a significant cost reduction, but it also reduces human interaction thereby reducing room for manual errors.

## Esports data technology

There are multiple platforms online, both subscriptions based and free, that allow players to know details of their favourite games, which were traditionally quite difficult to gather and visualise. They enable the detection of poor gambling decisions, they can generate comparisons with other users, analyse and correct errors, show players´ performance trends, and even allow the in-game configuration chosen by professional players to be known.

Blitz, Mobalytics, op.gg, hltv.org, shadow.gg are some examples of platforms providing these sorts of functionalities.

These tools work similarly to typical digital dashboards that you can find in the day-to-day operation of any leading company performing basic business intelligence. The concept here is the same: Data is obtained from one or more sources (in this case from all video game servers) and through the use of a series of data processing and model development mechanisms, visualisations are generated in order to retrieve insights for better decision-making in the next games.

The result is that players seem to be much more developed and with greater skill, contributing to an even greater competitive scene and more hype around these competitions. The better the players, the greater the expectation for each game, which generates more engaged and loyal audiences and, in turn generates more interest from brands to be present in this sector.

Data visualisation has become key to enhancing viewer experience during live broadcasts as it allows video game “noobs” (inexperienced participants) to follow the spectacle and easier understand competitive broadcasting. Data is shown on the screen in different tables and graphics during the broadcast, and it is possible to observe in real-time how the most relevant metrics fluctuate during competitive matches. This generates greater empathy from the first-time viewer, facilitating the monitoring of the game while helping to retain the most informal, and fickle, audience.

All these games, for the most part, are broadcast on online platforms such as Twitch, which for some time has been using an AI and ML-based system to manage and moderate the content shown in the chat in real-time. This technology called AutoMod allows more efficient filtering of inappropriate or obnoxious content, which enables auto-control of chat activity. While similar tools have been around for a long time, embedding ML now allows these platforms to improve their accuracy over time without constant human intervention.

Other applications commonly used within this environment that are based on the use of data through the development of various ML algorithms:

• The bot system: Bots are simple forms of AI that simulate the movements and actions of a human player. These virtual players are used in competitive video games mainly with two objectives; they allow new players to get up to speed with the mechanics of the game before facing other more experienced players, reducing the steepness of their learning curve, and they are useful as a warm-up or practicing tool for more experienced players, even for pros. There are hundreds of bots, but those that are more advanced have been developed using Reinforcement Learning as a form of Machine Learning.
• The AFK system: the AFK (away from keyboard) player detection system is focused on measuring and analysing the players´ absence from the game. If the system does not pick up any type of input signal for a while, it will assume that this player is not active. Depending on the video game, the action taken by the system will be different, but will most likely result in the player being thrown out of the game. Various programming mechanisms are utilised, including ML models, to assess if the player is AFK.
• The reporting system: A tool that penalises players based on historical in-game data collected. If a player receives a high number of reports from others, or the system counts several leaves from the game, they will be automatically banned from the system and prevented from participating for a while. ML models are applied which will increase this “punishment time” if the player persists with their bad behaviour.

In addition to all these functionalities, there are dozens of studies detailing the ideation of new ML/AI-based tools with which to continue improving different aspects of the game and its surrounding environment.

## Commercialising / Monetising data in the esports sector

Monetising audiences´ data is another emerging opportunity.

All this growth has forced brands to pay real attention. It has opened the door to a very volatile and complex audience and allowed firms to stand-out with differentiating messages that aim to make an impact on these audiences.

One of the most productive ways that brands have at the marketing level to obtain benefits from esports sponsorships is by acquiring a comprehensive understanding of their audience through data. Data from broadcasting, advertisements and other digital marketing strategies allow brands to measure the performance of their campaigns among young people. These data sets also allow them to create precise retargeting campaigns for brand awareness and target audience segmentation. Brands can gain a full picture of the consumer’s funnel and are able to identify more accurately where to generate a greater audience impact and greater brand benefits. These data will also be useful to develop loyalty campaigns with which to attract the attention of future consumers.

A clear example is found in BMW, a globally recognised automotive brand that has fully launched into this sector, becoming one of the main sponsors for five of the largest teams worldwide.

In short, the amount of data emanating from these campaigns allows brands to optimise investments within one of the most important and difficult target groups to reach.

Conclusions

At Bedrock, we understand that the demand for data science initiatives within the esports sector will not stop growing any time soon. With massive data sets being collected, it becomes possible to develop strong analytical tools for gamers, teams and advertisers, as well as AI-powered predictive systems that look set to shape the future of professional video gaming.

Stay tuned!